What are the advantages and disadvantages of national happiness index as the indicator of economic benefits

2 thoughts on “What are the advantages and disadvantages of national happiness index as the indicator of economic benefits”

  1. The proposal of the National Happiness Index
    The National Happiness Index (GNH) was first proposed by the King of Bhutan in South Asia. He believes that "policy should pay attention to happiness, and the goal of achieving happiness". How to maintain a balance between material life (including the benefits of science and technology) and spiritual life. " Under the guidance of this governing concept, Bhutan creatively proposed the "GDP of National Happiness" (GNH) indicators composed of four levels of government governance, economic growth, cultural development, and environmental protection.

    If the "gross product" reflects material -oriented and production -based, "the total value of happiness" reflects people -oriented. The World Bank is in charge of the vice president of South Asia, and the Japanese West Water Miko is highly evaluated by Bhutan's initiative. She said that policies that are completely affected by economic growth often make people fall into the trap of material desire and it is difficult to extricate themselves. There are the same problems in almost all countries, but we must never be pessimistic. Because "there is the only country that is the only country that is rich in material and spirit as the country's economic development policy, and has achieved success. This is the kingdom of Bhutan. The total value is much more important. Bhutan was still under the economic state of the exchange of no currency in 40 years ago. However, it has maintained a high economic growth rate. It has now surpassed other countries such as India and in South Asian countries. It is a country with the largest average national income. In the ranking of the World Bank, it has also greatly surpassed other developing countries to become the first. Despite this, people who travel to Bhutan will say in unison, as if returning to the hometown of their own soul . Bhutan showed many of the unpredictable things to us. "

    Speaking of tourism, Bhutan is not" the coming person will not refuse, and it will be good. " The tourism development model has never been engaged in large -scale promotion internationally. Bhutan restricts the total number of entry tourists and implements the practice of "high -quality, high price, and full -priced". The government has formulated the "Working Handbook" for tourist operators, which has the "Code for Behavior" for tourists. Although Bhutan's income from the tourism industry is only 3 million US dollars each year, it is enough to maintain the stable development of the tourism industry, and the impact on society is very small.

    The attempts like GNH, there are already many types in the international community, such as "green GDP", UN human development indicators, British "domestic development index" (MDP, which is deducted from the society to offset society The expenditure spent with environmental costs, considering long -term environmental damage and depreciation of natural capital, affirmed a series of economic adjustments to ensure cautious investment and trade balance, reflecting that the significance of increasing income by 1 pound to the poor is greater than the rich. Facts are included in the value of family labor) and so on. The creation of these indicators reflects the limitations of a single GDP indicator, and also shows the new needs of human beings.

    "Many local governments have proposed new evaluation indicators such as happiness index and mass satisfaction. In general, although it is a bit simple, but this is not stronger than not to do it." The Chinese Academy of Sciences is not strong. "The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it." The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it. "The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it." The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it. "The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it." The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it. "The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it." The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it. "The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it." The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it. "The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it." The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it. "The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it." The Chinese Academy of Sciences does not do it. "Chinese Academy of Sciences. Academician Cheng Guodong proposed a proposal of "Implementing" People -oriented "to account for the" National Happiness Index "in the beginning of last year. It is recommended that relevant departments of the state organization study and formulate a" National Happiness Index "evaluation system.

    In 2004, China's per capita GDP was already $ 1270. Since 1980, China ’s GDP has increased at an average annual high speed of 9.3%, creating a new economic miracle in East Asia. Economic achievements have attracted worldwide attention, while the overall human development situation shows an uncoordinated trend with GDP growth. The economic loss caused by environmental pollution and ecological destruction in 2003 accounted for 15%of the GDP of the year, and the genius coefficient that reflects the fairness of the income distribution of equity exceeds 0.4.

    In surveyed by the professor of the University of Erasmus at the Netherlands, the China Happiness Index in 1990 was 6.64 (1-10 mark) in 1990. To 6.60. Data show that even if economic continues to grow rapidly, it does not guarantee the continuous increase in happiness of the people.

    What influenced people's sense of happiness
    The measurement of people's subjective happiness in the late 1960s to the mid -1980s, becoming a hot research field of psychology. Psychologists' discussions on subjective happiness are more from three disciplines from the quality of life, mental health, and society. As sociologists and economists have joined the ranks of happiness, the rich connotation and expression of happiness have been revealed more.

    The happiness as a part of the social psychological system is affected by many complex factors, mainly including: economic factors such as employment status, income level, etc.; social factors such as education level, marriage quality, etc. ; Population factors such as gender, age, etc.; Cultural factors such as values, traditional habits, etc.; Psychological factors such as national character, self -esteem, attitude attitude, personality characteristics, motivation for achievement, etc.; Political factors such as democratic rights, participation opportunities, etc.

    The understanding of subjective happiness also involves many analysis levels, mainly including cognition and emotion, individual and groups, horizontal and vertical, time and time periods, and so on. In the close connection between subjective happiness and social psychological systems and many factors and levels, the following points are very unique and important:

    First, psychological reference system.就社会层面而言,其成员的幸福感将受到他们心理参照系的重大影响,例如在一个封闭社会中,由于缺乏与其他社会之间的比照,尽管这个社会的物质发展水平不高,但由于The role of psychological adoption and habit of setting the trend, its members may be satisfied, showing a low sense of happiness; and a society at the beginning of opening up, in the face of the various impacts of foreign developed society, began an external reference reference. Therefore, the happiness of their members may show a downward trend, because their original self -esteem was traumatized at this time.

    The second, the degree of motivation. People's achievements need to determine their degree of motivation, and the degree of motivation to determine their expected ambitions. Among them, the level of consciousness of their own achievements is an important link, because if people realize their own level of achievement higher than their expected ambitions, then they will have a strong sense of happiness; on the contrary Below their expected ambitions, then there will be no sense of happiness at all.

    third, the sense of security. It refers to individuals' confidence in the continuity of self -identity and the confidence in the social environment where they live. This sense of reliability from independence is extremely important to form individual trust, and the sense of trust in the external world is both the basis of individual security and the basis for individuals to resist anxiety and produce subjective happiness. Therefore, people's happiness sometimes does not show a simple positive relationship with their economic conditions or income levels. In real life, some people with poor economic conditions are not low, and some millionaires. But worried all day.

    Therefore, we can understand why the Chinese people's happiness rises first and then fall in the past 10 years, showing the non -synchronization between the trajectory with the economic development. The main reason is that in the early days of reform and opening up and modernization, the effectiveness of material development was obvious. At that time, the degree of social differentiation was not great. It is easy to produce satisfaction. In the past 10 years, the transformation of social structure has accelerated, and the reform of the system in various fields has increasingly touched deep interests, and the degree of social differentiation has increased, especially the gap between the rich and the poor; in terms of social psychology, with the gradual improvement of living conditions, people's demand levels are increasingly improved. , And show a variety of situations, so the standards that demand can be met is relatively improved; and due to the relative shortage of resources and intensified competition and the accelerated pace of modern life, people's various pressures have greatly increased. It is people's happiness.

    is worthy of special attention. Some survey results show that in recent years, people's concern for social issues has more inclined to be related to people's livelihood. The issue of people's livelihood has become the most concerned social issue for most social members. This change in focus reflects people's judgment on social development. The rise in the degree of attention to the issue of people's livelihood, especially reflects the most powerful impact of people's survival conditions and quality of life. All this deeply affects people's sense of security, that is, the specific manifestation is the enhancement of the demand for social life security, which affects people's sense of happiness.

    The misunderstanding of the "Happiness Index"
    In recent years, the "Happiness Index" has become a popular topic in my country's academic circles, and it has also become a practical issue for some government departments.

    The happiness index means that the subjective happiness is used as an indicator, and the quantitative result of people's subjective happiness is obtained by using a special measurement tool. However, if the Happiness Index will even play an important and reasonable role in the development plan of a local or country in the quality index system of life, then seek a sufficient understanding of the happiness index and avoid various errors to avoid various errors. Reading is undoubtedly the most basic premise.

    First of all, the understanding of happiness involves multiple disciplines such as philosophy, psychology, sociology, economics, and culture, which illustrates the high complexity of the social psychological system, and this complexity The subjective world to measure and explain with quantitative tools is undoubtedly a major challenge to the limitations of modern social sciences. Therefore, a possible misunderstanding about the happiness index is the tendency of simplifying the happiness index. One of the typical performances is that they hope to achieve a comprehensive and accurate grasp of subjective happiness through a questionnaire. An important issue in the measurement of happiness is: whether the life feelings expressed by people at the time of measurement can represent their overall life experience in a period.

    Secondly, the happiness index is the "vane" and "barometer" of social development and their problems. If the social psychological system contains rational cognitive evaluation and emotional feelings at the emotional level, then the emotional experience in happiness often dominates the emotional experience. Happiness is sometimes a very individualized subjective field. Therefore, in the field of practice, the happiness index can be an important aspect in the quality index system of life, but not the only aspect. Here, a possible misunderstanding about the happiness index is that the happiness index can be used as an absolute indicator that reflects the quality of personal life and measures the degree of social progress, thereby ignoring the richness of the connotation of social development and the spiritual field of people's spiritual fields Sexual consideration.

    The third, as an important reference factor for formulating development planning and social policies, the relationship with GDP should be dialectical. GDP is a hard indicator, and the happiness index is a soft indicator. The two have their unique status and role in development planning and social policies. Being able to care for happiness has increased by a level of development theory and development practice, and the connotation of development is richer. But it is definitely not necessary to make a choice between the GDP and the Happiness Index. Therefore, another possible misunderstanding about the happiness index is that the "happiness index worship" is generated, and the significance of the happiness index is to exaggerate, one -sided, and biased.

    The measures for happiness, Western psychologists, sociologists and economists have explored for decades, and have certain knowledge and experience accumulation. This is the case. There is no kind of happiness measurement tool that can be widely recognized, and many meters are still in continuous improvement. There are differences in the social psychology of society, cultural background and its reflection forms in China, and one of their reflection forms, so that the understanding of happiness will not be exactly the same, and the way of feeling happiness will be different. Therefore, if we want to develop a set of happiness measurement tools that both reflect the international level and meet the national conditions of China, especially the happiness index that can be used as a reference can be used as a reference of development planning and social policy. Research.

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