American pension insurance is divided into three parts, namely the federal pension system, private annuity plan, and personal pension plan. (1) The federal pension system The federal pension system is the most basic pension insurance system in the United States. It was founded in 1935. It started with the "Social Security Law" passed by the US Congress that year. Continuously replenish and revised, and the basic terms have been used to this day. The US federal government's law stipulates that employees are 65 years old regardless of men and women, and they must pay taxes for 40 quarters (with 10 years of payment years) in order to enjoy treatment. Pension insurance premiums are completely paid by employers and employees, and the government does not borne. The cost of endowment insurance, the state is raised by levy social security taxes, and employers and employees are paid at the same tax rate. The amount that employees should pay should be calculated in accordance with the number of annual salary. The annual salary of less than 55,000 US dollars is taxed at 7.65, of which 6.2%are used for pension, survivors and disability insurance, and 1.45%for medical insurance for elderly people over 65 years old; annual salary is 5. The part of 50 to 130,000 US dollars. Investing 1.45%(for medical insurance) pays tax; the annual salary of more than $ 130,000 is not required for tax. Employers pay taxes at a tax rate at their employees. Each USD tax, 73 beauty for pension, 19 beauty for medical treatment, and 8 cents for disability. Fed the federal retirement system through regulations that 65 years of age may enjoy full pensions. At the same time, they allow retirement in advance, but the pension reduction is issued. Employees can retire at most from 62 years of age, but retirement every month in advance, pension care for the elderly, pension career Gold is reduced by 0.56%; if the 62 -year -old retirement can only get 80%of the pension of a considerable 65 -year -old retirement personnel; 86%retirement at the age of 63; 94 -year -old retirement can only get 93%. After the age of 65, it can be retired at most 5 years, and the pension will be issued by 0.25%. If you retire at the age of 66, you can get 103%of the retirement pension at a considerable 65 -year -old retirement personnel; retirement at the age of 67 can enjoy 106%... 70 -year -old retirement can get 130%, retirees after 70 years old, pension is not pension, the pension is not not the pension. Increase. The average replacement rate of the federal pension system is about 50%. (2) Private annuity plan The private annuity plan for each enterprise voluntarily established. The U.S. government provides employers with tax preferential measures to encourage employers to establish a "private annuity plan" for employees. If an enterprise withdraws 100,000 US dollars from an annual turnover of $ 1 million as a "private annuity plan" for employees, the $ 100,000 can be exempted from tax. The "private annuity plan" under this preferential tax policy is a strong supplement to the US federal retirement system. At present, 60%of employees in the United States have participated in the private annuity plan. The "private annuity plan" mainly: The first category is to determine the treatment method, that is, the employer promises how much pension is given to the employee after retirement, and the amount of the annual stored amount is determined by the promise to calculate the calculation amount. Essence Large score companies adopt this method. The second is the payment method, that is, the amount of the payment is determined first, and the amount of retirement is determined according to the accumulated amount (including principal, interest, investment profit, etc.) when retirement. Essence (3) Personal retirement plan is personal savings insurance personal pension plan, voluntary participation, the general public stores are 3/4, and the enterprise will issue 1/4; And encouragement. Do not pay taxes during storage, and then pay taxes at the time of withdrawal, which is also a delayed tax method. The highest deposit of this plan is $ 2,000 per year, and it must be deposited before April 15th each year. The money can be collected with the interest after retirement, or it can continue to be deposited into the bank, but it must be used when it reaches the age of 70. If the annual salary exceeds a certain amount, it cannot participate in this plan. The specific criteria are: the annual salary of unmarried people exceeds $ 35,000, and the annual salary of married people exceeds 50,000 US dollars. . The American social insurance management system and funding guarantee The social insurance in the United States is deployed in centralized management by the federal government's social security (guarantee). There are more than 65,000 social security (guarantee) staff across the country, setting up social security (guarantee) bureaus in 10 large areas, 13,000 offices in their subordinates, and responsible for handling social security (guarantee) business. Local governments of counties, states (cities) are only responsible for additional guarantee plans. 40 telephone consultation centers are established nationwide, responsible for accepting citizens' inquiries and consulting telephones. Use 11 types of text on the Internet and develop more than 10,000 pages of information for citizens at home and abroad. The national social security tax of 568.4 billion U.S. dollars per year, $ 3.8 billion in management costs per year, and the extraction ratio is about 7%. Based on the calculation of 65,000 staff members nationwide, the annual management cost of each person is nearly 60,000 US dollars, which provides a guarantee for the social security (guarantee) business. . The advantages of the American endowment insurance system (1) The social security mechanism is relatively complete, the management is highly unified, and the binding power is strong. The basic endowment protection of the United States is centrally managed by the federal government. The Federal Government establishes the General Administration of Social Security (Security) and is responsible for the formulation of relevant laws of social endowment insurance and guidance to national policy and business. It is divided into 10 large areas across the country, with social security (guarantee) bureaus, and offices in various counties and states (cities) to specifically undertake social endowment insurance affairs. A social security network has been formed, with clear responsibilities. Local governments of counties, states (cities) do not bear national pension insurance, and formulate supplementary pension plans according to the actual situation of the region. All American citizens have a non -repeated social security number to manage social security relations on employees and retirees. The daily management costs of social security (guarantee) institutions are extracted from the proportion of social security taxes, ensuring that each year is guaranteed to ensure the development of various social insurance businesses. (2) Use the dual methods of law and economy to regulate the retirement age, great strength, good effect US laws and regulations that when they retire at the age of 65, they can enjoy 100%pension; Those who do not receive pensions at the age of 65, each delay receiving pensions for a year, increases 5%of the full pension, until the age of 70, when the pension starts, it can receive 130%of the full pension every week. ; For some enterprises who retire advances between the age of 55 and 62, their pensions are delivered in full by the enterprise. This policy not only guides practitioners not to retire in advance, but also protects the interests of retirement and postpone the benefits of pension. This is beneficial to reducing the pressure of fund payment. (3) The replacement rate of basic pension benefits is controlled at a lower level, which is conducive to the development of multi -level guarantee . According to relevant information, the American pension replacement rate is: 51%, the total replacement rate is 51%, and the total replacement rate is 51%. The net substitution rate is 65%, which is lower than France (62%, 77%), Germany (52%, 72%), Italy (81%, 95%), Sweden (81%, 82%), Spain (82%(82%) (82%) (82%) , 89%) and other countries, slightly higher than Japan (49%, 59%) and the United Kingdom (47%, 61%). Basic pension replacement rates are low, and the role of the second pillar (enterprise supplementary insurance) and the third pillar (personal pension savings) may be played. Commercial life insurance in the United States is very active. In order to fully mobilize the enthusiasm of employees, retain talents, and launch various forms of supplementary insurance such as corporate annuity plan. The pension insurance of the state organization really reflects a complete pension insurance system jointly undertaken by the three levels of the state, employers and individuals. (4) Make full use of high -tech and high degree of socialization The high -tech development level in the United States is recognized in the world. The application and management of the social security system has greatly improved the socialization of social security management services. Anyone who holds the social security number in the United States, which regions in the United States, and employment in the United States, as long as they pay a certain amount of social security taxes in accordance with regulations, they can automatically continue social insurance relations. Similarly, retirees died anywhere in China, and the hospital entered the computer into the computer to ensure that it was sold in time. Extension reading: [insurance] How to buy, which one is good, teach you to avoid these "pits"
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