Kiwi planting related technology what are the best -selling varieties of kiwi in recent years?

2 thoughts on “Kiwi planting related technology what are the best -selling varieties of kiwi in recent years?”

  1. 1. Make the orchards
    The reasonable work in the young kiwi garden can improve the micro -domain climate, the growth of young trees, can make full use of light energy and land, increase economic benefits, and increase soil organic matter, improve soil training Structure, improve the effective nutrient content in the soil; use inter -crops to cover the ground can inhibit the overgrown weeds, reduce evaporation and soil loss, and have windproof and sand. In addition, it can reduce the range of surface temperature changes, improve ecological conditions, and grow the growth of the root system.
    2. The question that should be noted
    (1) Maintain a certain distance between crops and fruit trees: the root system of kiwi is shallow and wide, and the crop root system and fruit tree root system should be avoided Essence With the expansion of the crown and root system, the area should be gradually reduced until stoppage.
    (2) Prevent shading: The crop should be selected for the dwarf plant, which should not affect the ventilation of kiwi ventilation and light transmission, such as beans and green fertilizer with dwarf stalks. In the fertilizer and water speculation, vegetables or medicinal plants with short fertility periods can be appropriately planted to increase returns, such as konjac.
    (3) Reasonable rotation: In order to avoid the adverse effects of crops, it is necessary to formulate the rotation system of inter -crop in accordance with the specific conditions of various places, such as bean crops and grain crops.
    For the kiwi garden with low organic matter content and poor water and fertilizer capacity, it is advocated that the green fertilizer crops with strong adaptability to improve the soil. According to the conditions, the regions can be planted in summer. Rammine, etc., sowing broad beans, peas, hair leafyons, Huanghua 苜 柽, Ziyunying, etc. in winter.
    2, surface coverage
    The surface coverage is under the canopy, straw, green fertilizer, etc. under the canopy or the entire row. The inter -environmental environment promotes the growth of the root system and the ground above the ground, while it is important to reduce the hazards of high temperature and drought.
    (1) The effect of surface coverage. Covering a significant effect. According to the experiment, under the coverage of 25 cm of straw, the absolute water content of the soil was 15.7%, and 11.4%did not cover. Covering can reduce the temperature in summer, increase the temperature in winter, reduce the temperature difference between day and night and seasonal temperature, so it is conducive to the occurrence and growth of the root system, delay the aging of the root, prevent root coefficient burns, and enhance the root absorption of the root system. After the organic matter is rotten, the water is immersed or turned into the soil with water, which adds the physical properties of the soil. At the same time, due to the increased organic matter content, soil temperature and wet conditions improve, and promote the activities of microorganisms, thereby increasing the content of effective potassium, effective phosphorus, calcium, boron, and magnesium in the soil, and improved soil fertility. Cover can also reduce the runoff of the surface to prevent soil output and soil loss. A certain thickness can control the growth of weeds, reduce the workload of weeding in the field and the number of weeding, and play a certain effect of exemption.
    The disadvantages of the coverage method are that the root system is easy to attract the root of the fruit tree. If the soil is turned deep before the cover, it can be overwhelmed by the long -term uninterrupted grass, which can overcome this problem. In addition, the cover is often the wintering place of some diseased and insect pests, which will bring inconvenience to preventing diseases and insect pests.
    (2) Cover time and method. The coverage of the kiwi garden should generally be completed before the high temperature of the summer, and it is performed in early June. At this time, the second root growth peak of kiwi can make the root system increase and extend the peak period.
    This materials can be adapted to local conditions and can be applied on the spot, such as straw, weeds, sawdust, sugar shells, green fertilizer, etc. The coverage method is several types of village disk coverage, ribbon coverage and national coverage. The thickness of the coverage is better than 25 cm, at least 15 cm.
    The high temperature and drought in summer can cause the normal physiological metabolism of the kiwi root system to be blocked, the village body is imbalanced, causing the kiwi root system to die, leaves scorched, branches withered, and fruit are sun burning. In addition to choosing a variety with strong drought tolerance such as Qinmei, Tongshan 5, Hayward, etc. in production, the key is to strengthen soil management and maintain a good water absorption function. If appropriate irrigation and tree dish coverage, such as technical measures for cooling the roots, can avoid the damage of excessively high soil temperature to the kiwi root system, prevent physiological drought, and maintain normal growth results.
    3, tree plate management
    The tree plate is the projection range of the crown on the ground, and it is a relatively concentrated area of ​​the fruit tree root system. Drought harm. Therefore, at the beginning of the establishment of the garden, tree disk management must be strengthened to promote the growth of the root system. After the young tree is planted to the beginning of the results, the management range of the tree plate is greater than the projection of the crown. Tree dish management usually includes medium farming, weeding, soil cultivation, etc.
    (1) Flowing pine soil. The time of loosening soil is mainly after rain or irrigation, and the surface soil will be dry yet. At this time, the soil can cut off the soil capillary tube, reduce water evaporation, and keep it in love; Weeds in the tree plate. The depth of the pine earth is about 10 cm. It is based on the root system of not damaging the root system. During the specific operation, the trunk is shallow to deep, and the range of the tree tray can be deepened to 15-20 cm. As the age of tree increases, the crown and root system continues to expand, and the scope of the loosening soil also expands until the whole garden is loose.
    (2) Weeding. After the planted trees are planted, they often fertilize and water, and the trees are moist and fertile, which is very easy to breed weeds. Kiwi must be developed and distributed shallowly. The growth of weeds not only affects its root stretch, but also competes with its fertilizer, which is particularly prominent when it is particularly drought.
    It often hurts the root system when weeds are lush, so weed in time. Herbasins can also be used between trees or rows.
    (3) Earth cultivation. Due to the loose soil in the tree plate, it is often watered with rainwater, which can easily cause the surface soil loss. In severe cases, the roots will expose the ground, which will cause death and cause death. Therefore, the tree plate should be cultivated in time.
    . Following the orchard
    kiwi grows strong and has lush branches and leaves. As a result, a large amount of nutrients are consumed every year, and the soil can be provided with limited support. Therefore The nutrition required for development. Understand the nutritional characteristics of kiwi. Making scientific and reasonable fertilizer is the foundation of high -yield, stable and high -quality kiwi.
    (1) The physiological role of the main elements
    The mineral elements required for kiwi growth and development include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, chlorine, manganese, iron, copper, boron, molybdenum, molybdenum, molybdenum Wait. Foreign studies have made a lot of research on the symptoms of the tree in these elements lack or excessive or excessive, and have formulated corresponding blade nutritional diagnosis indicators. In recent years, domestic research has also been carried out. The results are of great significance to guide fertilization. The general effects of various nutrient elements and the symptoms of the trees during their disorders are as follows:
    1, nitrogen
    nitrogen can promote nutrition growth, delay aging, improve photosynthetic efficiency, improve the quality of the border, improve the quality of the situation and improve Yield.
    INT's nitrogen content of new leaves is 2.2 to 2.8%. When the content drops to 1.5%, the leaves change from dark green to pale green, and even completely turn yellow. The fate is orange -brown sun -shaped and expands along the veins to the base. The necrotic tissue is slightly curled up. The fruits cannot be fully developed. In adequate base fertilizer, urea or human dung urine should be used for topdressing in the growth season to determine the need to consider the need for crops.
    2, phosphorus
    The phosphorus can be pushed into flower bud differentiation, fruit development seed maturity, and improvement of quality, can also improve the absorption capacity of the root system, promote the occurrence and growth of new roots; improve the drought resistance and cold resistance of fruit trees Essence
    The phosphorus content of health plant leaves is 0.18 to 0.22%, and phosphorus deficiency symptoms occur when lower than 0.12%. Old leaves appear green and expand from the top to the base. More obvious, the main and side veins on the back are red, gradually deepening to the base. In the kiwi garden with more calcium phosphate and organic fertilizer, phosphorus deficiency is rare.
    3, potassium
    Pither potassium can promote fruit hypertrophy and mature, promote sugar transformation and transportation, improve fruit quality and storage; Anti -reverse.
    The potassium deficiency is a more universal nutrient disorder. In many cases, the symptoms of leaf caused by potassium deficiency are mistaken for drought or wind damage. Usually kiwi contains 1.8 to 2.5%of potassium, and if it drops to below 1.5%, it shows the symptoms of potassium deficiency. The initial symptoms of potassium deficiency were the poor growth time. The leaves were small, and as the potassium deficiency increased, the edges of the leaves rolled upwards, especially during the day of the high temperature season, and disappeared at night. During further development, the leaves are rolled up for a long time, and the leaf meat tissue between the veins bulge upward, the leaves start from the edges, and the green tissue of the leaf meat tissue between the veins is bulged upwards. The leaves start from the edge. ; Fruits and size are affected and reduced production. The phenomenon of potassium deficiency is mainly because the potassium fertilizer applied is not enough to supplement a large amount of potassium taken away due to harvesting fruit every year. The application of potassium fertilizer should be paid attention to in production. Because kiwi grows more chlorine, potassium chloride is better. Essence
    4, calcium
    The cell wall composition of calcium play an important role. It can regulate cooperation and use it, which is closely related to the stability and permeability of the membrane. The appropriate calcium content can delay the aging of the fruit, improve the hardness, increase resistance to resistance Storage.
    Is when calcium deficiency, the color of the base of the new mature leaves is dim and necrotic, and the necrotic tissue plaques are gradually formed. Large -scale necrotic tissues are also generated near the tip. The leaves of general health plants are 3 to 3.5%, and the above symptoms occur when they are lower than 0.2%. Excessive calcium phosphate, calcium nitrate, etc. can prevent calcium deficiency in the soil.
    5, magnesium
    Mnemids can regulate the photosynthetic and breathing effects of plants, and the appropriate amount of magnesium can promote fruit hypertrophy and improve quality.
    The magnesium deficiency is more common in kiwi, which mainly occurs in the middle and late growth of growth. The symptoms are on the mature leaves of the year, and the veins or leaves are pale yellow -green, but at the base of the blade base, the magnesium content of the healthy leaves is 0.3 to 0.4%. Symptoms of magnesium, in severe cases of losing green tissue necrosis, necrotic tissue parallel and leaves, forming horseshoe shapes.
    6, sulfur
    The sulfur is a composition of a variety of amino acids and enzymes, which is closely related to the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
    The growth is slow when the sulfur is missing. The tender leaves are light green to yellow, and the green spots gradually expand. Only a wedge -shaped green is retained at the combination of the main and side veins. In severe cases, the veins of the tender leaves are all green, and the main difference between the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency is that the veins are also lost, and the edge of the leaf is not scorched. The sulfur content of normal blades is 0.25 to 0.45%, which shows symptoms of sulfur deficiency when below 0.18%. It can be adjusted through ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and other fertilizers.
    7, chlorine
    The chlorine and photosynthesis. Kiwi is sensitive to chlorine lack of chlorine, and began to disperse the loses green at the top of the old leaf on the top of the old leaf, and expand from the leaf margin to the main and side veins. Old leaves often roll cup -shaped, the area of ​​young leaves is reduced, the root growth is slow, and the tissue of tissue 2 to 3 cm from the root end is often mistaken for the cysts of the root bug. In areas with more rain, chloride in the soil is susceptible to soluble and losses. When the content of the leaves is less than 0.6%, symptoms will be displayed. Potassium chloride fertilizers should be supplemented.
    8, manganese
    Pitital manganese can ensure that the physiological processes of kiwi are carried out normally, which can increase the content of vitamin C.
    It in the middle of the growth period of kiwi, when the nutritional branches are mature and scary tablets are less than 30 grams of manganese and dry substances, manganese deficiency symptoms are manifested. At this time Lost green, the tissue of the small leaf veins raised upwards, and there was luster, and the veins were kept green in the end. The common pH value of manganese lack of pH is more than 6.8 soil or soil with too much lime. Applying fine iodine yellow, aluminum sulfate or ammonium sulfate can release the soil to release the manganese that could not be used in kiwi.
    The excess manganese is also more common in kiwi production. The symptoms of the foundation poisoning are small black spots with rules along the main veins of the old leaves. This feature is different from other nutrients. Mangated poisoning mostly occurs in orchards with poor acid soil or drainage. It can improve the pH value of the soil by applying lime to reduce the soluble manganese or improve the drainage system of the orchard to correct the phenomenon of manganese poisoning.
    9, iron
    The iron element participating in the basic metabolism of plants, play an important role in the synthesis of protein, chlorophyll formation, and photosynthesis.
    If in many areas of my country, the kiwi garden with a large amount of lime and the pH value is greater than 7. The symptoms of iron deficiency have been found. Yellow and white, some leaves, branches and old leaves will lose green, the leaves become thinner, easy to fall off, small and hard fruit, rough peel. The leaf surface spray 0.5%ammonium sulfate to turn the leaves green.
    The symptoms of poisoning will also occur when the iron is passed. The main manifestation of iron poisoning symptoms is at the edge of mature leaves. The green turns into yellow -green to yellow -brown. In severe cases, the leaf margin becomes brown, the necrotic tissue area occurs, and the leaf edge rolled slightly to cause the leaves to fall off.
    The symptoms of iron poisoning mostly appear in orchards with high iron ore or water irrigation with high iron content.
    10, boron
    boron can promote flower bud differentiation and pollen tube growth, which also affects the development of sub -room; appropriate amounts of boron can improve the content of vitamins and sugar and improve quality; it can also promote root development, enhance absorption absorption ability.
    The normal content of boron in the new mature leaves is 40-50 mg/kg of dry substances. If you reach 20 mg/kg of dried substances, the center of the young leaves will appear irregularly yellow. It becomes large yellow, and the growth of immature young leaves, deformity, and branches have been seriously affected. There are more in sand and gravel. A 0.1%borax can be sprayed with a 0.1%borax.
    Is when the boron content in the kiwi leaves exceeds 100 mg/kg of dry substances, boron poisoning will also be used. The necrotic tissue under the sun is silver, crispy and fragile, and is tear -shaped. According to foreign research, boron poisoning will occur when the amount of boron fertilizer per hectare exceeds 2 kilograms of boron fertilizer or irrigation water will occur.
    11, zinc
    is the component of certain enzymes, which is also related to the synthesis of vitamin, so it is one of the important nutritional elements of fruit trees.
    The mountain kiwi garden with sandy land, alkali land, and thin ridges is prone to zinc deficiency; there are many phosphates in the soil, premature phosphorus fertilizer, which will affect the absorption of zinc in kiwi and also show deficiency. When zinc deficiency, the new shoots will occur, and the veins are lost between the veins and began to expand from the leaf margin to the veins. No necrotic tissue was seen in the leaves, but the development of the side root was affected. Hkkkn dry substances, under 12 mg/kg of dry substances, have symptoms of appearance. Dilute spraying blades with 100 liters per kilogram of zinc sulfate can eliminate zinc deficiency.
    In addition, when the content of copper elements of kiwi blades is less than 3 mg/kg of dry substances, the symptoms of injury occur: the young leaves are losing green, and then developed into bleach. 25 kg of copper sulfate per hectare can be adjusted. Kiwi sometimes has sodium poisoning. According to analysis, when the sodium -containing well water is irrigated, when the sodium content of kiwi leaves is greater than 0.12%, the plant is obviously short and the leaves are blue -green.
    (2) The fertilizer characteristics of kiwi
    kiwi requires a large amount of various types of dirty and chaotic elements, and in different periods of buds, blades, flowering, fruit development, etc. There are differences in absorption. The leaf analysis data in New Zealand show that during this period, the number of nitrogen, potassium, zinc, and copper accumulated in the leaves during this period of buds to sit in the period of 80%of the total year.
    The absorption of phosphorus and sulfur is also mainly consistent in spring, magnesium, iron, boron, and manganese accumulation in the entire growth season. After sitting fruit, potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutritional elements have gradually shifted from nutritional lawsuits to fruit. It is also found that the amount of chlorine on kiwi is much larger than that of ordinary crops. The general crops are about 0.025%, while kiwi contains 0.8 to 3%, especially when the potassium content is insufficient, the amount of chlorine needs is greater. Essence
    (3) The change of nutritional elements in the soil
    This orchards generally have less nitrogen content in spring, and the potassium content is similar to nitrogen; phosphorus content is different. Essence The soil nutrient accountant is related to the type of soil management system of the inter -crops. For example, as the beana family, there are less nitrogen in spring, and in the summer, it increases due to the effect of nitrogen fixation. The above factors are also one of the basis for determining the fertilizer and the type.
    The soil moisture condition is related to fertilizer effects. Excessive moisture is easily scrub and reduce the use of fertilizers. When moisture and loss, fruit trees are difficult to absorb or suffer from poisoning. Therefore, fertilization should also be carried out according to the changes in local soil moisture, combined with irrigation arranges.
    It also consider the nature of fertilizers. Speed ​​efficient fertilizer that is prone to volatile fertilizers such as ammonium bicarbonate, or fixed fertilizer fixing fertilizer after soil, such as excessive calcium phosphate, should be applied to the fruit trees for a little bit. The absorption and utilization of fruit trees should be applied in advance.
    (4) The method of fertilization during fertilization
    1, base fertilizer
    generally advocated autumn fertilization, and it is more beneficial to apply early after picking. Depending on the maturity period of various varieties, the fertilization period is from October to November. During this period, the nutrients synthesized by leaves have returned to the root system, promoting a large number of root systems, and a peak of 1 growth. At the same time, because the leaves of the leaves lose fruit after the fruit are used to regulate the fruit, the temporary function decreases often. It requires the recovery and maintenance of the leaves to delay the aging of the leaves, the life of the leaf, and maintain the strong photosynthetic production capacity. Essence Qiu Shi fertilizer can improve the nutritional level in the tree, which is conducive to the differentiation of flower buds before and after the flowering of kiwi fallen leaves and before and before the following year.
    This fertilizer is combined with improvement of soil and improved soil fertility. There should be more organic fertilizer, such as fertilizer, composting, cake fertilizer, human fertility, etc. At the same time, a certain amount of accelerated nitrogen fertilizer is added. According to the soil nutrients of the orchard, the amount of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer can be applied. 60%, if it is in winter and spring, it can be appropriately reduced.

    2, topdressing

    This should be picked up in time according to the growth characteristics of the kiwi root system and the upper ground growth material period. Prematureness and results of the tree are not conducive to the normal growth and results of the tree.
    (1) Sybility fertilizer. Generally, it can be applied before and after February and March. At this time, it can promote the growth of thexillary buds and the growth of branches and leaves. The fertilizer is mainly fast -acting nitrogen fertilizer, with potassium fertilizer.
    (2) Strong fruit to promote fertilizer. Generally, from June to August after falling flowers, the young fruits at this stage quickly expand, and the growth of new shoots and flower bud differentiation require a lot of nutrients. It can be applied as appropriate according to the trees and results. The fertilizer should be applied to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizer. Also pay attention to observe whether there are symptoms of prime deficiency in order to adjust in time.

    3, application method

    (1) Ring groove fertilization. At a slight distant or 1 meter away from the trunk, the depth and width of the deeper and width are used for fertilization at a slightly far away or around the trunk.
    (2) Radial ditch application. Taking the main trunk as the center of the center, 40 cm in the inside and outside of the canopy projection is about 4 to 6 in the horizontal root growth direction, 30 cm wide, and a depth of 30 to 40 cm. Mix fertilizer and soil for fertilizer.
    (3) fertilization of ditch. Dig a piece of 30 cm and 30 to 40 cm depth on the sides of the exterior edge of the canopy, and apply fertilizer.
    (4) Point. Dig a deep 40 cm deep and 40-50 cm in diameter at a distance of 1 meter away from the crown, and the number is sprinkled according to the size of the crown. After the whole garden is sprinkled, it will turn down for 30 to 40 cm.
    (5) spray of leaf surface. It is also called fertilization at the root, and a certain concentration of fertilizer is sprayed evenly on the leaves. The method of topdressing is simple and easy to follow, with small fertilizer, and fast fertilizer effect, which can avoid the fixation or loss of certain nutrients in the soil. It can be carried out in combination with spraying and spray irrigation, which can save labor and reduce costs.
    The fertilizer commonly used in kiwi leaf surface fertilizer is as follows: 0.3 to 0.5%urea, 0.3 to 0.5%sulfate, 0.1 to 0.3%of boric acid or borax, 0.5 to 1%potassium sulfate, calcium phosphate 0.3 0.3 ~ 0.4%, 1 to 5%of the plant ash, 0.3%potassium chloride.
    The leaf spray fertilizer is best to be performed in cloudy or sunny morning and evening.

    (five), fertilization
    The kiwi needs to absorb a large amount of nutritional elements at a young age. As the age of the tree increases, the total amount of elements absorbed by the tree body continues to increase. After entering the results period, trimming and harvesting fruits each year, and the tree body loses a lot of mineral nutrition. Therefore, when determining the amount of fertilization, the amount of the tree should be flexibly grasped according to the size and results of the tree body, and the effective nutrients in the soil. According to the experience of cultivating Qinmei kiwi in Shaanxi, the amount of base fertilizer is: 50 kg of organic fertilizer per plant, 0.25 kg each with calcium phosphate and potassium chloride; Add 1 kg of calcium phosphate and 0.5 kg of potassium chloride. Young trees are used for a small number of multiple methods, 0.1 to 0.2 kg of potassium chloride, 0.2 to 0.25 kg of calcium phosphate; the fruiting trees, according to active ingredients, generally apply 268 to 225 kg per hectare, 45 ~ phosphorus 45 ~ phosphorus 45 ~ 52.5 kg, potassium 78 ~ 85.5 kg.

    . Water management

    The water resistance of kiwi is weak, and the water will die for 8 days. The leaves are large, the water is steaming, the root system is relatively shallow, and the extension range is narrow. When it is drought, it grows weakened, which can easily lead to the sunburning of the leaves. Kiwi blades have weak resistance to the spread of air holes. Although there is temperature change in the day, the pores are not opened. Technology is very important.
    The focus on the curve of actual expansion and growth, the focus of Si when irrigation is from late June to mid -July, and September. During the period when the drought period and its growth and development are large and the volume is relatively large, the necessity of irrigation operations is greater. The amount of irrigation in kiwi is: summer is more than 5 mm daily; spring and autumn are 2 to 3 mm daily. In the interval time of irrigation, according to the physiological characteristics of kiwi, in order to prevent extreme drought or overly wet, a large amount of irrigation must be avoided, and the interval time should be short and a small amount of irrigation each time.
    The cost of irrigation method of hose, but time -consuming and labor -intensive, soil must be cultivated around the tree to prevent waterproof division. Spray irrigation methods saves time, effort, and high efficiency, but it is easy to cause soil loss in the slope area. The moisture of drip irrigation methods slowly moves in the soil, which is the most effective, but the management of management operations such as weeding is poor.
    The water garden in the kiwi garden is too much, and high humidity conditions are formed under the scaffolding to promote the occurrence of diseases; when the drainage conditions are poor, it can sometimes lead to rotten roots. Especially in the kiwi garden with a stronger trees and a large closure, this trend is more serious. Controlling irrigation in the flowering period can reduce the occurrence of diseases.
    China Organic Agricultural Network

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